" Selamat datang di situs pribadiku. Mari dengan semangat keakraban, kecerdasan, kritis tetapi menjunjung tinggi kejujuran dalam berkomunikasi, kita kuak tabir kehidupan nyata yang terjadi dalam kehidupan kita "!

6 October 2009
Productivist model in Asian countries

By Fatkhuri

This essay discusses the nature of social welfare system in Asian Countries. By analyzing the nature of social policy in East Asian countries, the discussion will focus on productivist model. Prior to discuss this argument, this essay will explain the social welfare system by critically elaborating two articles by Oyunbileg Purev and Thilak Nandana Hettiarachchi. In this paper, I would argue that determines the nature of social welfare system in Asian countries consist of distinctive feature which is signed by productivist model.

To start with, Purev argues that the nature of social welfare model relies on economic, political, and socio-cultural factors. There are several approaches that Purev concerns in order to delineate the nature of social policy. The approaches are from Hill’s point of view such as determinist approach, political approaches, cultural approaches, and institutional approaches which can contribute to development(Hill 2006, p. 26).

According to determinist approaches, an economics circumstance is becoming a factor of welfare arrangement. In addition, Political approaches through a specific ideology of countries gives influences on welfare structure development. Furthermore, cultural approaches which are heavily relied on values, ideologies and religions rather than economic characters of citizen. Finally, institutional approaches focus on the institution that shape and structure policy developments.

Apart from these four main areas, Purev considers political factor is one of pivotal aspects that form welfare system model. In the very outset, she explains some factors which trigger the social welfare system which is one of them are political and socio-cultural. According to her, political approaches are a fundamental feature which contributes to the nature of social welfare model.

Like wise, Hettiarachchi argues that politics obviously shape the social welfare model. By looking at the experience of Scandinavian countries, Hettiarachchi points out that political principle are the significant aspect which shapes the structure of the Scandinavian welfare model. In supporting his argument, he use the analysis from Anxo and Niklasson who pointed out that the state’s political will was an essential element which can support the objective of full employment and equal principles (2006, p.342). For him, the model of social welfare was a consequence of the awareness of political preferences of the Social Democratic parties which were implemented in these countries.

However, Purev and Hettiarachchi have different argument about the character of social welfare model. Purev explains that the relationship between culture and social policy as essential factors in social welfare. She mentions that culture is elements which obviously bring social welfare within society. With this in mind, she quoted Baldock’s argument in which ‘Social welfare is an expression of values in so far as it distributes resources from those it defines as capable of contributing to those it defines as in need (Baldock 1999, p.459).

Taking culture as a central point which creates social welfare, Purev sees the elements of culture which consists of values, religion, belief and ideology as the model which succeed in coining the welfare notion. In this case, she looks at evidence of religious ideology affect on a welfare system in the catholic countries which have an emphasis on traditional ties. Accordingly, these countries have a better social protection for families with children. Different from this, she shows the fact that Calvinist Protestantism in UK, USA, Switzerland lies in the opposite direction. According to her, these countries inhibited welfare state development because it emphasizes control in one’s own spheres. Considering the Scandinavian countries as a model, according to Purev, religion clearly makes a contribution to the social welfare for society. For example, Lutheran religion in Scandinavian countries had a positive impact on the introduction of welfare state. In this regard, the state has a duty to take good care of its citizens, who in turn subject themselves willfully to the state and its demand for contribution to the common good (Oorschot 2007, p.135).

In contrast, Hettiarachchi looks at a different perspective according to which the history has become a crucial factor in shaping social welfare system. In this regard, he puts forward that historical factors that were involved with the development of the state bureaucracy of Scandinavian counties were heavily significant on the nature of the welfare provision, in particular, government dominance in the field. This is of course different from Purev’s perspective since Hettiarachchi argues that religion plays a less significant role in these particular maters. Secondly, according to Hettiarachchi state plays a pivotal role through tax regulation which is the most important source of income in public sector and thus funding of welfare. Thirdly, labor market conditions were also important in shaping the nature of welfare arrangements. He mentions that cooperation between the trade unions, employers associations and government led to the creation of a most centralized labor market. Furthermore, Demography is another important factor which determines the structure of welfare arrangements. Finally, Public attitudes and norms relating to welfare policy are crucial since they affect directly on the legitimacy of the welfare policy and institutions. Public support is considered to be the foundation of the Scandinavian model.

Considering these arguments, Purev seems to be bias since she much pays attention on culture as a determinant nature of social policy. In this regard, she also does not explain in detail about how the some approaches work in relation to development.

Similarly, Hettiarachchi does not provide a detail picture in which countries do the natures of social welfare mostly work because he merely use general case (Scandinavian countries) but he does not give a specific case such as in Sweden, Denmark and so forth. This in turn leads the vague argument.

Despite these weaknesses, Purev and Hettiarachchi give the clear understanding that the nature of social welfare model does not heavily rely on single element, but it rather consists of multifaceted components and perspectives, and this is the strength of these articles. Discussing the welfare model therefore is not merely an economic matter, but based on this explanation, it needs a broader perspective which encompasses politics, culture and ideology. Among other things, these kinds of elements lead to the same goals in order to bring development through social policy as the fundamental grounds. In terms of their writing style, both authors explain the idea in good coherence and clear argument.

Considering the welfare model social, however, the argument aforementioned can not be generalized across countries and nation. Looking at the case of Asian welfare model, it obviously shows the different trait.

Asian welfare model has a different feature of social welfare system in which its objective is on productive investment both in social as well as human capital development. These two aspects are run in the same direction. Aspalter argues that social rights in these counties are characterized by economic participation through market which is signed by low tax policy, job opportunity and net income high (2006, p. 297). In addition, the welfare model is reached by region rather than state. As pointed out by Wilding (2000), the welfare model in Asian countries is achieved by the regulation of social welfare which is implemented in the region rather than the state regulation (Aspalter 2006, p. 298).

Taking the East Asian countries into accounts, there are certain aspects of East Asian Countries which create social welfare model. In this case, Esping-Andersen (1997) and Jacobs (1998) point out that Market, enterprise and the family-household are considered as the important elements (Gough 2001, p. 177).

Firstly, Market is regarded a pivotal aspect since this shapes the rapid increase of incomes and a reasonable distribution of factor earnings which offers a high saving rate and growing private funding of welfare. As a result, both of these two aspects lead to low taxes and lack of public alternatives. Secondly, enterprise is considered as aspect which is characterized by social benefits, employment protection and seniority wages which play a significant role in social welfare system. This action is redistributed within family. Thirdly, the role of the family-household has arisen which can be traced from the elderly group who live with children.

Like wise, there are some other distinctive characteristic of productivist model which consists of three important elements. These three features are facilitative, developmental universalist and developmental particularist (Holliday 2000, p. 707). It should be noted that these three elements are considered as a sign which illustrate the differences from liberal, conservative and social democratic model.

The main characteristic of social policy in productivist countries is that social policy is strictly subordinate to the superseding policy objective of economic growth. This can be searched from minimal social rights with the extensions linked to productive activity, reinforcement of the position of productive elements in society, and state-market-family relationship directed toward growth (Holliday 2000, p. 708).

In terms of facilitative, social policy is subordinated to economic policy which espouses economic growth as main concerned. In addition, both social rights and stratification effects are very limited. Furthermore, Market has become major attention in which its existence becomes priority. The best example of this model is Hongkong. As pointed out by Holliday, Hongkong can be categorized as facilitative model in which this country implements a strategy for economic growth through free-market capitalism as a fortress (Holliday 2000, p.712)

In regards to Developmental-universalist, government plays a significant role in order to create social rights for useful elements of society and this immediately result in aristocracy of employment. As pointed out by Holliday, state is a central of dominant actor which imposes economic policy other than the market as well as family. For example, Japan is a country which implements this model. According to Goodman et all (2007), today the Japanese government is active in the spheres of medical care, income maintenance, social service and housing (Holliday 2000, p. 711)

Similarly, Developmental-particularist does not have social rights as well. In this feature, productive element within society has also become major attention by which adequate level of individual welfare condition is promoted which creates the advance of society’s position. Along side the market and family, in this regard, state provides a directive social role. For instance, Singapore provides the Central Provident Fund (CPF) as well as public housing as the elements of social policy. The CPF is a compulsory saving system which enables both employers and employees giving similar contribution for the amounts. In addition, the vast of program of housing clearly shows Singapore’s development in which the percentage of home for public increased from 9 percent to more than 86 percent between 1960 and 1996 respectively (Holliday 2000, p. 712-713)

To sum up, despite the fact that politics, culture and economy have become major factors which contribute to the nature of social welfare system especially in Scandinavian welfare state, however, the case of Asian countries shows different aspects of social welfare system in which not only market and family-household which has become a major roots in order to make social policy, but also state plays a directive roles toward economic growth. This role has become the fore front in leading social welfare model in the region to support economic growth.

Baca Selengkapnya!

artikel dimuat 17 April 2008 di www.suaramerdeka.com
Krisi pangan
Ditulis Oleh Fatkhuri, MA

Bagaimana negara kita akan mengatasi persoalan ini? Belum selesai persoalan busung lapar sebagai akibat gizi buruk, fenomena bunuh diri karena kelaparan sampai rakyat kita makan nasi aking di beberapa daerah, kini ada berita buruk dari Badan Pangan Internasional (FAO) yang melaporkan bahwa saat ini kondisi pangan dunia sedang kritis. Sebagimana dilansir oleh Detikfinance, Minggu (13/4), stok pangan di pasar dunia mencapai level terendah sejak tahun 1980-an. Mengalami penurunan hingga lima persen dibanding kondisi tahun lalu.

Direktur Jenderal Organisasi Pangan dan Pertanian FAO, Dr Jacques Diouf, mengemukakan bahwa setikdanya ada beberapa faktor yang menyebabkan kelangkaan pangan dunia yang menyebabkan melambungnya harga. Diantaranya, pertama, meningkatnya kebutuhan bahan pangan di negara-negara yang sedang tumbuh ekonominya seperti China dan India, baik dari segi kualitas maupun kuantitas. Dengan semakin meningkatnya kesejahteraan penduduk di negara-negara yang ekonominya sedang tumbuh, menyebabkan konsumsi produk daging dan susu juga meningkat.

Faktor kedua, rendahnya stok pangan dunia. Diperkirakan stok akan turun menjadi 405 juta ton pada akhir 2008. Kenyataan ini tentu mengejutkan sebab jika hal ini terjadi, maka akan menyebabkan stok pangan dunia menyusut, terendah setelah 1982.

Ketiga, banyaknya kejadian bencana alam seperti banjir, kekeringan, dan badai yang terkait dengan adanya perubahan iklim global.

Kenyataan tersebut tentunya menjadi keprihartinan kita bersama di mana cepat atau lambat, dampak ini akan terasa bagi masyarakat kita terutama mereka yang hidup dibawah garis kemiskinan. Dampak kelangkaan pangan ini akan semakin menambah beban masyarakat semakin berat. Kelangkaan pangan, secara otomatis akan berakibat pada kenaikan harga-harga kebutuhan dasar yang tentu sulit dijangkau oleh masyarakat miskin.

Ada beberapa catatan penting yang secepatnya harus diambil oleh pemerintah untuk mengantisipasi kemungkinan buruk akan adanya kelangkaan pangan. Pemerintah harus secara cepat melakukan tindakan konkret, yakni dengan memberikan bantuan modal kepada produsen pangan terutama petani yang tidak mempunyai modal, agar mereka dapat menambah produksi semaksimal mungkin. Hal ini penting untuk mengantisipasi kelangkaan ketersediaan pangan dalam negeri.

Sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh Direktur Jenderal FAO, peningkatan produksi pangan nasional merupakan langkah utama yang harus dilakukan pemerintah setiap negara guna mencegah dampak buruk dari fenomena tersebut.

Kita tentu ingat sambutan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pada pembukaan pertemuan tingkat menteri negara-negara anggota Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) se-Asia Pasific ke-28 di Jakarta, 15 Mei tahun 2006 silam. Presiden menyatakan bahwa Indonesia akan meluncurkan program ketahanan pangan 2006-2009. Tentu ini langkah positif bagi perkembangan pertanian di Indonesia. Kita harus mengapresiasinya. Dan mengawal pemerintah agar sungguh-sungguh menjalankan komitmennya.

Pemerintah juga harus menurunkan harga faktor produksi pangan, terutama pupuk untuk petani. Sebab, kondisi yang terjadi dari tahun ke tahun, petani kita tidak pernah untung dalam artian hasil yang mereka dapatkan tidak sebanding dengan modal yang dikeluarkan. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah mahalnya harga pupuk.

Suka atau tidak, sudah saatnya pemerintah harus menghentikan impor beras dan menstabilkan harga-harga bahan pokok dalam negeri terutama beras agar bisa terjangkau oleh masyarakat kecil. Bagaimanapun peran pemerintah sangat penting dalam menentukan nasib rakyat, sehingga pemerintah harus segera mengeluarkan kebijakan yang pro-rakyat kecil.

Kita tentu tidak ingin mendengar rakyat kita mati kelaparan, merajalelanya gizi buruk, dan jeritan rakyat karena tidak mampu membeli beras.

Fatkhuri, MA
Mahasiswa Bidang kebijakan Publik Australian National University (ANU) Canberra Australia

Views: 444

Komentar (1)

RSS comments
18-04-2008 08:42, 08:42
krisis pangan
Tulisan diatas sebenarnya sudah merupakan peringatan dini bagi pemerintah akan dampak buruk krisis pangan selain banyaknya warga miskin terkena gizi buruk,busung lapar dan korban meninggal karena kelaparan yang berakibat pada keresahan sosial dan bermuara pada gejolak dan kerusuhan sosial yang lebih dahsyat dari th.1998 karena ini menyangkut kebutuhan manusia yang paling dasar yaitu pangan yg tdk dapat ditunda-2 lagi sehingga menimbulkan kefrustasian sosial/massal sebagai perbandingan saat krisis ekonomi awal 1997 yg memuncak th 1998 berawal dari naiknya BBM & likuiditas saja sudah sedemikian dahsyat apalagi krisis pangan pasti lebih mengerikan selain cadangan pangan yang cukup juga perlu dipikirkan kemampuan daya beli pangan masyarakat saat hari H paceklik/krisis pangan yg akan datang karena percuma saja jika stok pangan cukup tapi masyarakat kesulitan atau tidak mampu membelinya yang paling parah jika komoditas pangan sudah langka mahal lagi pasti kemarahan rakyat yang akan dipanen pemerintah

Baca Selengkapnya!

Published in www.indonesiamatters.com

Informal Transportation - Ojeg
May 12th, 2008, in Opinion, by Fatkhuri

Fatkhuri on whether ojeg driving provides an adequate livelihood.

Ojeg Drivers in Pisangan, Ciputat, Tangerang
Informal transportation vehicles are popular not only in the third world, but also in the developed countries. In most developing countries, this transportation, particularly motorcycles, are part of the essential mode of transportation.

To what extent does ojeg, or ojek, driving support the daily needs of ojeg drivers? This article will seek the answers based on interviews with and observations of some ojeg drivers in Ciputat, Tangerang in 2006.

Ease of Entry

It is a fact that Ojeg is a useful transportation which to a certain degree is effective in maintaining human livelihoods. For most people in Indonesia, Ojeg profession can be an alternative job as they encounter not enough wages or income with their other jobs. In addition, working in ojeg transportation is easy to enter, since this job is very flexible and it does not require any fixed or official regulation, and we only need to use a motorcycle either by renting or buying one.

Motorcycle Ownership

In terms of motorcycle ownership, based on my observation in Ciputat, Tangerang, there are three types.

People own motorcycles by buying through credit or down payment, because they do not have adequate money to buy in cash.
Some ojeg drivers buy in cash. Therefore, it will be easy for them to manage their income since they do not have any obligation to pay money monthly.
A few Ojeg Drivers rent motorcycles from other people.
Why informal transportation is very important in our life

Informal transportation plays an important role in supporting economic life for society. One of its features is giving mutual benefit either for those who need this transportation in order to link their business as well as for the owner of the transport themselves. The benefits that customers receive are mostly in the form of services. For example, traders or employees who do not have private transport will need this transport to get to their work office, market and the like. In line with this, for the owner of this transportation, they will also receive money from customers’ payment. Furthermore, the importance of informal transportation is as a result of the lack of common or traditional forms of public transport network and infrastructure such as mass public transportation.

Historically, in the period of colonization in Indonesia, informal transportation played a significant role compared to formal transportation such as railways. In fact, at that particular time, informal transportation such as Ox-cart (Gerobak) and river traffic (Perahu) had many more customers than railways and this informal transportation could help economic activities throughout Indonesia.

Interviews with Ojeg Drivers in Pisangan

By virtue of the information I got, less than one third of Ojeg drivers said that they could make a living from ojeg driving. Only 30% of total ojeg drivers in Pisangan said that the ojeg profession is adequate to support their livelihoods.

Some drivers said that the monthly repayments on their loan to purchase the motorcycle took up too much of their money, and some said that income was usually exceeded by their outlay, while some said their income fluctuated too wildly and that ojeg driving was sufficient employment only at certain times.

My study shows that the ojeg profession does not obviously support the daily needs of ojeg drivers in Ciputat. It has been proven that most of the groups have part time job in order to support their family income. They think that by looking for other jobs it will help them to support their daily needs. It can be found from the facts that some of the ojeg drivers’ wives help them by opening small shops (Warung nasi) or other jobs. Therefore the ojeg drivers often need their wives to work to support their livelihoods.

Tags: Banten, Ciputat, Economics, Employment, Infrastructure, Jobs, Money, Motorcycles, Ojek, Pisangan, Tangerang, Traffic, Transport, Transportation

16 Comments on “Informal Transportation - Ojeg”
Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 12th, 2008 at 4:53 pm
Hi Fatkhuri,

Nice piece of research. Good to get up on the web and well-read blogs like this one.

On one hand, the ojek drivers and their ilk are the unsung heroes of Indonesia. Well, Soekarno gave them their due in Marhaenism.

At the same time, let’s be honest. Those guys piss away alot of their money on arak, cigarettes, even cheap whores, little luxuries to get through life. There’s a reason the 108 year old BRI gives over 95 % of its loans to women.

Fatur Says:

May 13th, 2008 at 11:07 am
Hi Achmad,

It’s true that some of ojek drives have a bad habit like you said.But, cannot generlise that all of them are bad since based on my observation, there are some of them who strenuously struggle for theri survival and tend to avoid those features.

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 13th, 2008 at 12:08 pm
That’s your observation, dude. Personally, my money’s Bank Rakyat Indonesia, which has more money to lose than just internet fees.

Rob Says:

May 14th, 2008 at 2:53 pm

If that is the case then perhaps “we” should avoid taking the ojek on principle? That principle being that

At the same time, let’s be honest. Those guys piss away alot of their money on arak, cigarettes, even cheap whores, little luxuries to get through life.

so, if the ojex are only going to do the things that you suggest with their meagre incomes then by avoiding the use of the ojek service we would in fact be saving them (ojex) from themselves.

This seems to be an interesting take on the issue for you Achmad!

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 14th, 2008 at 5:44 pm
Hi Rob,


Their wives sensibly take away most of their money and leave them with an allowance. If you don’t believe me, ask the next taxi driver.

Their money is “net” ie after tax.

But it’s an honest transaction — they offer a service — you offer a payment. What they do with it is their business, they’re adults.

Achmad is all about freedom, choice, and free will.

Merdeka !

Rob Says:

May 14th, 2008 at 7:56 pm

Just taking the piss!

Yep, an honest transaction all around; the ojek provides a service and I pay for that service. As does the some one else who barters and then provides a service to the ojek for the “ride” home!

Ahhh….such are the intricacies of life, always a balancing act to make ends meet!

Patung Says:

May 14th, 2008 at 9:05 pm
Their wives sensibly take away most of their money and leave them with an allowance. If you don’t believe me, ask the next taxi driver.

I read an interview with an ex-prostitute, she was asked how women could stop their husbands going to prostitutes, and yep you guessed it, her advice was don’t let them out of the house with anything more than cigarette money in their pockets.

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 15th, 2008 at 12:40 pm

I think the piss-taking needs a bit of work. Had a column on piss-taking tips earlier on. But, always good to, um, “cross swords,” you old swordsman, you !

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 9:07 am

Patoeng, “I read an interview” with a prostitute. Yeah. Sure you did. : p Just like those guys who hang out at Dolly “for the atmosphere.”

Patung Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 12:45 pm
Yep Achmad, ok you got me, if you want the truth I was in TP trying out some of the methods outlined in How to pick up babes in malls Part 1. - No good, all I got was some stinging red marks on my face, so I gave up…. (that’s an ellipsis). So, I am really, really hoping that Part II will be coming out very soon. I seriously think that Achmad’s fame can be taken far beyond the dangdut bars, if you’ll only let me help him you along…(another ellipsis)

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 12:56 pm
: -)

We’re here for you, brother !

Rob Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 2:23 pm
Or that other classic…

“I recently heard from a friend of a friend that …”

Patung Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 5:12 pm
We’re here for you, brother !

Great, let’s get the email address confusion sorted out, you’ve got so many of them I don’t know which one works now.

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 6:29 pm
Brother Patoeng,

E-mail is:


x o

Achmad Sudarsono Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 6:30 pm
Just sent you a note.

timdog Says:

May 17th, 2008 at 6:43 pm
Oooooo! Look at all those elipses!!!!

Baca Selengkapnya!





      "Pembaca yang terhormat, agar selalu memperoleh informasi terbaru dari kami, silahkan ketik alamat email anda pada kotak dibawah ini, untuk informasi lainya silahkan hubungi:fatur@mail.com".


      "Dear reader, for recived up to date information from Us please submit your email address below, for further information please contact: fatur@mail.com"


        Business, Strategy, Standard Operational Procedure www.EzBook.tk

          Marketing,Advertising,Sales, Accounting, Franchise www.EzJournal.tk

            AusAid, USAID,Sampoerna Foundation, AsiaInvest www.EzScholar.tk

            Application Letter, Phsycotest, Interview, Management Trainee

              Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking, IELTS Prediction www.EzIELTS.tk

                GMAT Exercise, Score Prediction, MBA,USA,Business, Management www.EzGMAT.tk

                Please Contact Us: ecustomer@mail.com www.AdsbyGoogle.tk

                  TOEFL Online,Score Prediction,Preparation, Exercise www.EzTOEFL.tk